The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1412 AD)

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The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1412 AD)

The Tughlaq were the Turkish origin Muslims. The Tughlaq belonged to the ‘Qarana Turk’ tribe which was the mixed tribe of the Turk and Mangol. The Tughlaq provided three competent rulers and they are:- Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Mohammad bin Tughlaq and Firoz shah Tughlaq.

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq(1320 -25 AD)

Ghazi Khan Tughlaq, governor of Dipalpur, ascended the throne of Delhi sultanate under the title of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq in 1320 AD. The dynasty founded by him was known as Tughlaq dynasty.

Ghiyasuddin improved the system of communication, perfecting the Postal System. he is the first sultan to be credited with digging canals for the improvement of irrigation and agriculture.

Ghiysuddin strengthened the defense of North-Western frontier in order to check the Mangol invasion. He adopted a balanced policy known as Rasm i-Miyana.

 

Ghiyasuddin founded the city Tughlaqabad and renamed Warangal as Sultanpur. On returning from Bengal after annexed it he died in 1325 AD due to collapse of wooden Pavilion.

Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-51)

Mohammad Bin Tughlaq was earlier known as Prince Jauna. He received the title of Ulugh Khan from Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. Mohammad bin Tughlaq ascended the throne at Tughlaqabad in 1324 AD and his coronation was held after forty days in Delhi in 1325 AD.

Mohammad bin tughlaq was the most learned and accomplished scholars of his time. He knew logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and physical science. He was brilliant calligraphist and a lover of music.

He has been represented by contemporary as one of the wonders of the age in which he lived. He tried to introduced many administrative reforms. He had five ambitious projects for which he had become particularly debatable.

Capital Transfer(1326-1327 AD.)

He transferred the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad as it had been base of the expansion of Turkish rule in South India. Sultan wanted to make Devagiri as his second capital, so that he might be able to control South India better and renamed its name as Daulatabad.

After a couple of years Muhammad bin Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad because he was not able to govern the North India from Daulatabad effectively.

 

Introduction of Token Currency (1329-1330 AD.)

Muhammad Tughlaq decided to introduced bronze coins, which were to have the same value as the silver coins. Muhammad Tughlaq might have been successful if he could prevent people from forging the new coins, and the new coins greatly  devalued in markets. He finally decided to withdraw the token currency.

Khurasan Expedition (1332-1333 AD)

The Sultan has also vision of universal conquest. He decided to conquest Khurasan and mobilised a huge army for this purpose, but this plan had never been materialised.

Qarachil Expedition (1333-1334 AD)

This expedition was launched in Kumaon hills of Himalayas, allegedly to encounter Chinese incursions. The first attack was success, but when rainy season set in the invaders suffered terribly. Muhammad bin tughlaq in his last years, ran from pillar post, bus was unsuccessful in doing so.  He was died in a war camp in sindh. 

Muhammad bin tuhlaq appointed Ibn Batuta a moorish traveler as the chief Qazi of Delhi.

 

Taxation in Doab(1333-1334 AD)

 The sultan increased the rate of taxation and revived and created some additional Abwabs and cesses.
Sultan created a new department of agriculture called Diwan-i-Kohi. The main object of this department was to bring more land under cultivation. He spent 70 lakh rupees in two years but the experiment was failure. Sondhar(agriculture loan) were advanced to dig wells and to buy seeds and implements. He created Wali-ul-Kharaj for the collection of revenue at all provincial levels.

 

Religious Policy of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq

 Muhammad bin Tughlaq took his own decisions regarding religious matters. The sultan did not even permit to Ulema to interfere in his administration. He used to change the decisions of Quazis, whenever he found them unjust and discriminating. If a religious man found guilty of corruption or rebellion, he was punished like any other ordinary person. Thus nobody was above the law of land. He was the first sultan of Delhi who gave respectable offices to the Indian Muslims and the Hindus. In this field he was ahead of his time.

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