The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1412 AD)
The Tughlaq were the Turkish origin Muslims. The Tughlaq belonged to the ‘Qarana Turk’ tribe which was the mixed tribe of the Turk and Mangol. The Tughlaq provided three competent rulers and they are:- Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Mohammad bin Tughlaq and Firoz shah Tughlaq.
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq(1320 -25 AD)
Ghazi Khan Tughlaq, governor of Dipalpur, ascended the throne of Delhi sultanate under the title of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq in 1320 AD. The dynasty founded by him was known as Tughlaq dynasty.
Ghiyasuddin improved the system of communication, perfecting the Postal System. he is the first sultan to be credited with digging canals for the improvement of irrigation and agriculture.
Ghiysuddin strengthened the defense of North-Western frontier in order to check the Mangol invasion. He adopted a balanced policy known as Rasm i-Miyana.
Ghiyasuddin founded the city Tughlaqabad and renamed Warangal as Sultanpur. On returning from Bengal after annexed it he died in 1325 AD due to collapse of wooden Pavilion.
Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-51)
Mohammad Bin Tughlaq was earlier known as Prince Jauna. He received the title of Ulugh Khan from Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. Mohammad bin Tughlaq ascended the throne at Tughlaqabad in 1324 AD and his coronation was held after forty days in Delhi in 1325 AD.
Mohammad bin tughlaq was the most learned and accomplished scholars of his time. He knew logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and physical science. He was brilliant calligraphist and a lover of music.
He has been represented by contemporary as one of the wonders of the age in which he lived. He tried to introduced many administrative reforms. He had five ambitious projects for which he had become particularly debatable.
Capital Transfer(1326-1327 AD.)
He transferred the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad as it had been base of the expansion of Turkish rule in South India. Sultan wanted to make Devagiri as his second capital, so that he might be able to control South India better and renamed its name as Daulatabad.
After a couple of years Muhammad bin Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad because he was not able to govern the North India from Daulatabad effectively.