Origin of Mughal Empire
The Mughal Dynasty which lasted more than 300 years was founded by Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur. . The Era is an epoch known for National Integration and stability, religious rapprochement and tolerance and flourishing of Art and Culture. The name Mughal is derived from the Mongol. The original home of Mongols was Mongolia in central Asia. The famous mongol chief Changiz Khan defeated the Rivals Tartars and built up a powerful empire. Babur the founder of Mughal Dynasty was connected to the Changiz Khan on his mother side and Timur-i- lang on on his father side.
Babur (1526-1530 A.D)
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur was born in 14th Feb 1483 in Ferghana. He succeeded his father Umar Seikh Mirza as a ruler of of Ferghana in Central Asia at the age of eleven. He cherished a dream of conquering Samarkhand, the Capital of Timur but failed to retain it and even lost Ferghana. He set out for Kabul and took advantage the political situation of Kabul and occupied it in 1504 A.D.and ruled till 1526 A.D.
Ibrahim Lodhi the Sultan of Delhi had alienated a large number of Afghan’s nobles by his arrogance. In 1524 A.D. Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babur to invade India. Babur responded his invitation and marched towards Delhi. On the way Babur captured the Lahore but was forced to return Kabul in the meantime as Daulat Khan Lodhi disliked Babur’s conquest. At the end of 1525 A.D Babur defeated Daulat Khan Lodhi the governor of Punjab and then marched towards Delhi. The Battle between Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi and Babur took place in historic plains of Panipat in 1526 A.D. This battle is also known as first battle of Panipat. Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated and killed by Babur. Thus Babur occupied the throne of Delhi and laid the foundation of Mughal Empire in India.
Rana Sangha or Sanghram Singh of Mewar resolved to set up the Rajput empire on the ruins of Delhi Sultanate. Rana Sangha alliance with Rajput chief of Marwar, Ambar, Chanderi, Gwalior Ajmer and Mahmud Lodhi brother of Ibrahim Lodhi, met the Babur’s army on the field of Khanua in 1527 A.D. Babur defeated the alliance army. The victory of Khanua firmly established the Mughal empire in India. After Khanua the central gravity of Mughal empire shifted from Kabul to Delhi. Babur died in 1530 AD and was buried at Arambagh in Agra; later hes body was taken to Kabul and buried there. He was besides a good general, a cultured and literary man who wrote Persian poetry.
Humayun (1530-1556 A.D.)
Babur was succeeded by his eldest son Humayun. He occupied the throne at the age of 23. He was faced with number of problems after accession to the throne. Humayun had three brothers –Kamran, Hindal and Askari. Each of them asserted his claim to the throne of Delhi. At last Humayun solved this problem by appointing his brothers as governors of three provinces. Humayun built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second Capital. In 1531 Humayun besieged the fort of Kalinjar in Bundelkhand. Humayun turned his arms against the Afghans who were marching on to the province of Jaunpur under the leadership of Mahmud Lodi. Humayun had defeated them in the battle of Dourah (1532). In the battle of Chousa in 1539 A.D Humayun was defeated by Sher Khan. In 1540 Humayun again fought with Sher khan in the battle of Kanauj but again was defeated by Sher Khan.