Latitude and Longitude Lines
What is Latitude?
Latitude is the angular distance of a place that specifies the north or south position of a point on the earth surface.
Important Facts of Latitude related to Competitive Exams
- These are parallel to the Equator.
- These are not equal due to the shape of the earth.
- 1 degree of latitude is equal to 111 km distance of the earth
- The total number of latitudes are 181
- 30 to 35 degree N latitude are known as Horse Latitude
- The length of the equator is equal to the circumference of the earth i.e 40075 km or 24901 Miles.
- The Equator forms a great circle i.e circumference of the Earth.
- The equator divides the earth into two equal halves in horizontally.
- The lowest gravity of the earth is found on the equator due to centrifugal force.
- The Equator is also the farthest latitude from the centre of the earth.
- The equator crosses three continent of the earth they are:- Asia, Africa and South America
- Tropic of Cancer crosses the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea.
- Congo river of Zaire intersects twice the equator.
- Mahi river crosses twice the Tropic of Cancer.
- River Limpopo crosses twice the Tropic of Capricorn.
- The famous important latitudes are
- Equator- 0 degree
- Tropic of Cancer- 23 & 1/2 degrees N
- Tropic of Capricorn- 23 & 1/2 degree S
- Arctic Circle- 66 & 1/2 degree N
- Antarctic Circle – 66 & 1/2 degree S
- From 23 & ½ degree N to 23& ½ degree S the sun positioned directly above at Noon.
- From 23 & ½ degree N to 23 & ½ degree S this region is known as Tropical Zone/Torrid Zone.
- From 23 & ½ degree N to 66 & ½ degree N & 23 & ½ degree S to 66 & ½ degree S these zones are known as Temperate Zone.
- From 66 & 1/2 degree N to North pole and 66 & ½ degree S to South pole these are known as Polar zone/Frigid Zone.
- Tropic of Capricorn crosses the three oceans they are the Pacific, Atlantic and India Oceans.
- Days and Night are equal throughout the globe when the sun is above the equator.
The longitude is defined as an angle pointing west or east from the Greenwich Meridian, which is taken as the Prime Meridian.
Important Facts of Longitude related to Competitive Exams
- These are not parallel
- These are equal in length
- I degree of longitude is equal to 111.3 km/ 69 miles in distance.
- The total number of longitude is 360 in total.
- The difference in time between one longitude to another is 4 min.
- 0-degree longitude is known as prime meridian/Greenwich meridian.
- Greenwich Mean Time is the standard time of the United Kingdom.
- 180-degree longitude is known as International Date Line.
- The International date line passes through the Bering Strait
- When ship/ Airplane cross International Date Line from West to East It loses one day.
- Prime meridian divides the earth into two equal halves in vertically and they are Western hemisphere and Eastern hemisphere.
- Prime meridian crosses three continent of the world they are:- Europe, Africa and Antarctica.
- Prime meridian Cuts Tropic of Cancer at Algeria in Africa.
- Prime meridian cuts the Equator at the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean
- Prime meridian Cuts Tropic Of Capricorn in the Atlantic Ocean.
- Longitude and Latitude are run perpendicular to each other.