Latitude and Longitude Lines
What is Latitude?
Latitude is the angular distance of a place that specifies the north or south position of a point on the earth surface.
Important Facts of Latitude related to Competitive Exams
- These are parallel to the Equator.
- These are not equal due to the shape of the earth.
- 1 degree of latitude is equal to 111 km distance of the earth
- The total number of latitudes are 181
- 30 to 35 degree N latitude are known as Horse Latitude
- The length of the equator is equal to the circumference of the earth i.e 40075 km or 24901 Miles.
- The Equator forms a great circle i.e circumference of the Earth.
- The equator divides the earth into two equal halves in horizontally.
- The lowest gravity of the earth is found on the equator due to centrifugal force.
- The Equator is also the farthest latitude from the centre of the earth.
- The equator crosses three continent of the earth they are:- Asia, Africa and South America
- Tropic of Cancer crosses the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea.
- Congo river of Zaire intersects twice the equator.
- Mahi river crosses twice the Tropic of Cancer.
- River Limpopo crosses twice the Tropic of Capricorn.
- The famous important latitudes are
- Equator- 0 degree
- Tropic of Cancer- 23 & 1/2 degrees N
- Tropic of Capricorn- 23 & 1/2 degree S
- Arctic Circle- 66 & 1/2 degree N
- Antarctic Circle – 66 & 1/2 degree S
- From 23 & ½ degree N to 23& ½ degree S the sun positioned directly above at Noon.
- From 23 & ½ degree N to 23 & ½ degree S this region is known as Tropical Zone/Torrid Zone.
- From 23 & ½ degree N to 66 & ½ degree N & 23 & ½ degree S to 66 & ½ degree S these zones are known as Temperate Zone.
- From 66 & 1/2 degree N to North pole and 66 & ½ degree S to South pole these are known as Polar zone/Frigid Zone.
- Tropic of Capricorn crosses the three oceans they are the Pacific, Atlantic and India Oceans.
- Days and Night are equal throughout the globe when the sun is above the equator.
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The longitude is defined as an angle pointing west or east from the Greenwich Meridian, which is taken as the Prime Meridian.
Important Facts of Longitude related to Competitive Exams
- These are not parallel
- These are equal in length
- I degree of longitude is equal to 111.3 km/ 69 miles in distance.
- The total number of longitude is 360 in total.
- The difference in time between one longitude to another is 4 min.
- 0-degree longitude is known as prime meridian/Greenwich meridian.
- Greenwich Mean Time is the standard time of the United Kingdom.
- 180-degree longitude is known as International Date Line.
- The International date line passes through the Bering Strait
- When ship/ Airplane cross International Date Line from West to East It loses one day.
- Prime meridian divides the earth into two equal halves in vertically and they are Western hemisphere and Eastern hemisphere.
- Prime meridian crosses three continent of the world they are:- Europe, Africa and Antarctica.
- Prime meridian Cuts Tropic of Cancer at Algeria in Africa.
- Prime meridian cuts the Equator at the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean
- Prime meridian Cuts Tropic Of Capricorn in the Atlantic Ocean.
- Longitude and Latitude are run perpendicular to each other.
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