- According to Jain tradition 24 “Tirthankaras” or” Saint” preached Jainism.
- Rishavanath was the first and Mahavira was the last thirthankar of Jainism.
- Parsvanath the historical personage was the real founder of Jainism. He was a prince of Benaras.
- He preached the four- fold ideals of Truthfulness, Non injury, Abstention from stealing and Non- attachment.
|Rishavanath/ Adinath||Bull or Ox|
- The most widely accepted view is that Mahavira was born on 540 B.C. in the village of Kundagarama near Vaishali in Bihar.
- His Father Name was Siddarth and he was the head of a famous Kshatriya Jantrika clan.
- His mother Trisala was a Kshatriya Lady related to the ruling families of Videha and Magadha.
- His wife name is Yasoda and his daughter name was Anojja.
- At he age of 30 he became an Ascetic.
- He kept wondering for 12 years from place to place and finally attained Kaivalya ( Supreme Knowledge) at jhimbitikagrama on the bank of river Rijupalika under a sal tree and came to be known as Jina ( Conqueror) and his followers came to be known as Jain from his name jina.
- He died at Pava in South Bihar at the age of Seventy two i.e in 468 B.C.
Teaching of Mahavira
- Jaininsm was based upon the Pancha Mahabrata or the great five vows i.e 1-Truthfulness, 2- Non-Injury, 3- Non- Stealing, 4- Non Attachement, 5- Brahmacharya.
- The Main purpose of Mahavira’s teaching is the attainment of of salvation by freeing the soul from earth bondage.
- There are three Jewels of in Jainism called Triratna i.e Right Faith, right Knowledge, and Right Action.
- The followers of Mahavira came to be known as Nirgranthas.
- Asceticism and Penance were the two Pre-requisite for freeing oneself from the cycle of birth and Re -birth.
- Monastic Existance was a necessary condition of salvation.
- Ahimsa means cause no harm to the living beings.
- Satya means speak always truth.
- Asteya means not to posses anything which is not willingly offered.
- Brahmacharya means to exercise control over one sense.
- Aparigraha means to observe detachmen
- t from people, places and things.
- They did not believe in the existence of God, believed in Karma and the transmigration of the Soul.
- There are three gems of Jainism. 1) Right Faith. 2) Right Knowledge. 3) Right Conduct.
- There are five categories of siddha.
|Trithankara||One who has attained salvation|
|Arhant||One who is about to attain Nirvana|
|Acharya||The Head of the Ascetic group|
|Upadhyaya||The teacher or the Saint|
|Sadhu||Including the rest|
- Mahavira jain founded the Jain church.
- He had eleven ardent disciples called the Ganddharas ten of them died during mahavira lifetime only one named Arya Sudharaman lived and become the first pontiff/Pope.
- Ujjain was a great Jaina centre where saints like Kalkacharya and Gardhilla lived.
- Bhadrabahu the great exponent of Jainism composed Kalpasutra.
- Chandragupta Maurya was also the followers of jainism. He left pataliputra and reached Sravanbelgola at karnataka where in chandra hill performed his fast upto death.
- The followers of Bhadrabahu were known as Digambara as they believed in nudity.
- The followers of Sthulbhadra were known as Shvetambara as they wore white cloths only.
- There are twelve Angas in Jainism.
- The first Council of jaina was held in Patliputra around 300 BC.
- The second council of jaina was held at Vallabhi Gujrat in 512 AD.
- Fasting by the Jain members on fool moon day or new moon day is known as Pasodha.
- Five principle observed by jain monks is known as Mahavrata.
- The jain scholar Hemchandra composed the longest poem known as Trisastisalaka Purushacharita.
- The religious text of jainism were opted in Prakrit Language.
- Hathigumpha cave of Kharvela and the Khandagiri and Udaigiri caves of orissa contain early jains relics.
- During Kushan period Mathura was the great centre of Jaininsm.
- The gigantic statue of Bahubali known as Gomateswar at Shravanbelgola and Karrkala are the wonderful architects of Jains.
- Dilwara temple of Mount Abu in Rajesthan and Jaina Tower of Chittorgarh are the best specimen of architectural engineering.
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