Digestive System in Human

Digestive System in Human

Digestive System

The System in which Tissues and Organs of our Body receive nutrients & converts it into energy by breaking down foods, which we intake.

There are five steps of Digestive Systems

  1. Ingestion
  2. Digestion
  3. Absorption
  4. Assimilation
  5. Egestion

Ingestion:- Ingestion refers to the food we intake through our Mouth.

Digestion:- The breakdown of ingested food into simpler form is known as Digestion. This process starts with our Buccal cavity/Mouth. Digestive glands help in this process.

Absorption:- The process in which digestive foods are absorbed into our body. Most of the absorption process took places in the small intestine.

Assimilation:- In this process, the absorbed nutrients from the digestive food are transported different cells of the body.

Egestion:- The process in which undigested or Waste food are removed through Anus from our body.

There are two components of Digestive System

  1. Elementary Canal
  2. Digestive Glands
Elementary Canal

It is a type of Muscular tube which extends from the Mouth to the Anus. The total length of the Elementary canal is 9 meter or 33 feet. It consists of:-

Mouth/Buccal Cavity

  • It is the beginning of the Elementary Canal.
  • It consists of Salivary Glands, Teeth and Tongue.
  • Digestive System starts from here.
  • 1 to 1.5 L of saliva secreted from Salivary glands every day.
  • The teeth cut and chopped the food.
  • Tongue mix saliva to the chopped food and forms Bolus(Softball of food which can be easily swallowed easily).


  • Oesophagus is also known as Food Pipe.
  • It is a muscular type of tube
  • Its length is 25 cm.
  • It starts from Pharynx and ends into the stomach.
  • The tissue of oesophagus is called Mucosa.


  • It is a ‘J’ shaped structure.
  • It is located on the left side of the upper abdomen.
  • The 2nd phase of digestion starts from here.
  • Here food stored for 4 to 5 hours.
  • The chemical breakdown by means of enzymes and HCL takes place here.

Small Intestine

Digestive System in Human
  • The length of the small intestine is 7.5 meter.
  • Villi is present here
  • There are three parts of small intestine they are:- Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum.
  • The length of the Duodenum is 20 cm.
  • The shape of Duodenum is ‘C’ like structure.
  • The jejunum is the midsection of the small intestine.
  • It connects Duodenum and Ileum.
  • The length of the Jejunum is 2.5 meter.
  • The length of the Ileum is 3 m long.

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  • It the junction point of Small and Large intestine.
  • It is located on the right side of the body.
  • It is a vestigial organ of our body.
  • The appendix is found on the edge of the Caecum.

Large Intestine

Digestive System in Human
  • The length of the large intestine is 1.5 meter.
  • There are two parts of the large intestine, Colon and Rectum.
  • Absorption of water and minerals take place here.

Digestive Glands

There are three types of Digestive glands are found in the human body they are:-

  1. Salivary Glands
  2. Liver
  3. pancreas

Salivary Glands

  • It is present in the Mouth/Buccal Cavity.
  • There are three pairs of Salivary glands found in the mouth.
  • It produces Saliva in the mouth.
  • The Enzymes found in the saliva are Ptyalin and Lysozyme.
  • Ptyalin breakdown the starch present in food.
  • Lysozyme has an anti-bacterial property.


  • The liver is the largest internal organ of our body.
  • The liver is the only organ which has the capacity of regeneration.
  • It is the largest gland of our body.
  • It is found in the abdominal cavity.
  • The weight of the liver in an adult person is approx. 1.5 kg.
  • It is a bobbed organ of our body.
  • The cells found in the liver is called Hepatic Cell.
  • The main work of the liver is the emulsification of Fats.
  • Bile Juice secreted from Liver and stored in Gall Bladder.
  • Bile juice is alkaline in nature.
  • Bili Rubin and Biliverdin are the two types of bile salts present in the Bile Juice.
  • The Glucose stored in the Liver as Glycogen form.
  • Protein and Amino Acids breakdowns as ammonia inside the Liver.
  • The complex fats are converted into simpler fat by Kupffer cells present in the Liver.
  • The Proteins Fibrinogen and Prothrombin which helps in blood clotting are synthesized by Liver.
  • Liver stores Vitamin A and D.
  • Heparin is produced by the Liver which acts as Anticoagulant Agent.
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  • It is a Mixed/Compound Gland of our Body.
  • The length of the Pancreas is 6 inches.
  • It regulates the Blood Sugar level.
  • It is composed of Exocrine & Endocrine Tissues.
  • Exocrine secrets Trypsinogen, Amylase, Lipase and Nuclease.
  • Endocrine secrets different types of Hormones like Insulin, Glucagon.
  • Endocrine tissue is also known as Islet of Langerhans.
  • Insulin secrets from the Beta cells of the Pancreas.
  • Glucagon secrets from the Alpha Cells of the Pancreas.

One Liner Related To Competitive Examination
  • Insulin which is secreted from Pancreas is a Hormone, not a digestive enzyme.
  • HCL acid is found in the stomach of the Human being.
  • Milk is converted into Coagulated Milk or Curd by the Renin Enzyme.
  • Vitamins do not provide any type of energy to the Body.
  • In Digestion, Proteins are converted into Amino Acid.
  • Saliva helps in the digestion of Starch.
  • The end product of digestion of Starch is Glucose.

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