Digestive System in Human
The System in which Tissues and Organs of our Body receive nutrients & converts it into energy by breaking down foods, which we intake.
There are five steps of Digestive Systems
Ingestion:- Ingestion refers to the food we intake through our Mouth.
Digestion:- The breakdown of ingested food into simpler form is known as Digestion. This process starts with our Buccal cavity/Mouth. Digestive glands help in this process.
Absorption:- The process in which digestive foods are absorbed into our body. Most of the absorption process took places in the small intestine.
Assimilation:- In this process, the absorbed nutrients from the digestive food are transported different cells of the body.
Egestion:- The process in which undigested or Waste food are removed through Anus from our body.
There are two components of Digestive System
- Elementary Canal
- Digestive Glands
It is a type of Muscular tube which extends from the Mouth to the Anus. The total length of the Elementary canal is 9 meter or 33 feet. It consists of:-
- It is the beginning of the Elementary Canal.
- It consists of Salivary Glands, Teeth and Tongue.
- Digestive System starts from here.
- 1 to 1.5 L of saliva secreted from Salivary glands every day.
- The teeth cut and chopped the food.
- Tongue mix saliva to the chopped food and forms Bolus(Softball of food which can be easily swallowed easily).
- Oesophagus is also known as Food Pipe.
- It is a muscular type of tube
- Its length is 25 cm.
- It starts from Pharynx and ends into the stomach.
- The tissue of oesophagus is called Mucosa.
- It is a ‘J’ shaped structure.
- It is located on the left side of the upper abdomen.
- The 2nd phase of digestion starts from here.
- Here food stored for 4 to 5 hours.
- The chemical breakdown by means of enzymes and HCL takes place here.
- The length of the small intestine is 7.5 meter.
- Villi is present here
- There are three parts of small intestine they are:- Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum.
- The length of the Duodenum is 20 cm.
- The shape of Duodenum is ‘C’ like structure.
- The jejunum is the midsection of the small intestine.
- It connects Duodenum and Ileum.
- The length of the Jejunum is 2.5 meter.
- The length of the Ileum is 3 m long.
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- It the junction point of Small and Large intestine.
- It is located on the right side of the body.
- It is a vestigial organ of our body.
- The appendix is found on the edge of the Caecum.
- The length of the large intestine is 1.5 meter.
- There are two parts of the large intestine, Colon and Rectum.
- Absorption of water and minerals take place here.
There are three types of Digestive glands are found in the human body they are:-
- Salivary Glands
- It is present in the Mouth/Buccal Cavity.
- There are three pairs of Salivary glands found in the mouth.
- It produces Saliva in the mouth.
- The Enzymes found in the saliva are Ptyalin and Lysozyme.
- Ptyalin breakdown the starch present in food.
- Lysozyme has an anti-bacterial property.
- The liver is the largest internal organ of our body.
- The liver is the only organ which has the capacity of regeneration.
- It is the largest gland of our body.
- It is found in the abdominal cavity.
- The weight of the liver in an adult person is approx. 1.5 kg.
- It is a bobbed organ of our body.
- The cells found in the liver is called Hepatic Cell.
- The main work of the liver is the emulsification of Fats.
- Bile Juice secreted from Liver and stored in Gall Bladder.
- Bile juice is alkaline in nature.
- Bili Rubin and Biliverdin are the two types of bile salts present in the Bile Juice.
- The Glucose stored in the Liver as Glycogen form.
- Protein and Amino Acids breakdowns as ammonia inside the Liver.
- The complex fats are converted into simpler fat by Kupffer cells present in the Liver.
- The Proteins Fibrinogen and Prothrombin which helps in blood clotting are synthesized by Liver.
- Liver stores Vitamin A and D.
- Heparin is produced by the Liver which acts as Anticoagulant Agent.
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- It is a Mixed/Compound Gland of our Body.
- The length of the Pancreas is 6 inches.
- It regulates the Blood Sugar level.
- It is composed of Exocrine & Endocrine Tissues.
- Exocrine secrets Trypsinogen, Amylase, Lipase and Nuclease.
- Endocrine secrets different types of Hormones like Insulin, Glucagon.
- Endocrine tissue is also known as Islet of Langerhans.
- Insulin secrets from the Beta cells of the Pancreas.
- Glucagon secrets from the Alpha Cells of the Pancreas.
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- Insulin which is secreted from Pancreas is a Hormone, not a digestive enzyme.
- HCL acid is found in the stomach of the Human being.
- Milk is converted into Coagulated Milk or Curd by the Renin Enzyme.
- Vitamins do not provide any type of energy to the Body.
- In Digestion, Proteins are converted into Amino Acid.
- Saliva helps in the digestion of Starch.
- The end product of digestion of Starch is Glucose.
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