Classification of Soil in India

Classification of Soil in India

What is Soil?

Soil:- Soil is the mixture of organic matters like Fossils, minerals, gases, liquid and organism that together support life. Soil is also one of the significant natural resources. It makes the topmost layer of Earth crusts.

The study of Soil is known as Pedology. In 1956 Soil survey of India was established to study the different types of soil in India.

Classification of Soil In India

The formation of soil is known as Pedogenesis.

Function of Soil:-

  • It acts as a medium for plants growth.
  • Acts as a means of water storage, supply and purification.
  • It is a natural habitat for organisms.

In 1986, Indian Council of agriculture research divided Indian soils into 8 types they are

  1. Alluvial Soil
  2. Black soil
  3. Laterite Soil
  4. Red Soil
  5. Mountain Soil
  6. Alkaline Soil
  7. Desert Soil
  8. Peat/Marshy soil

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Alluvial Soil

  • It is the most fertile soil of the Earth
  • Approx  45% of Indian Soil is Alluvial Soil
  • It is formed by the deposition of eroded particles of River brought from the Mountains.
  • Alluvial soil is divided into two types:- Khadar and Bhangar.
  • Khadar soil is new deposits of alluvial soil on the flood plains. This soil is renewed every year by the rivers so it is more fertile than the Bhangar Soil.
  • Bhangar soil is old alluvial soil. Most of the northern plains of India is formed by the Bhangar soil.
  • Alluvial Soil is found in Punjab , Haryana, UP, Bihar and Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • Alluvial Soil is rich in Potash and Lime.
  • Nitrogen and phosphorus is not found in this soil.
  • Rabi & Kharif crops like Wheat, Rice Sugarcane Jute is grown in this soil.

Black Soil

  • Black soil is known as Regur Soil.
  • It is also known as Cotton soil of India.
  • It is formed by the Volcanic Eruption.
  • This soil is found mainly in the Deccan Plateau regions of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
  • Lime, Iron, Magnesium, Aluminum & Potash are the minerals found in rich quantity in this soil.
  • Phosphorus & Nitrogen are found in very low quantity.
  • Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco are the main crops grown in this soil.

Laterite Soil

  • This soil is reddish in colour due to found iron Oxide in it.
  • It is acidic in nature.
  • This soil is formed by the laterite rocks.
  • This soil is usually unfit for nutrition.
  • This soil is found mainly in Kerela, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Assam.
  • Calcium is not found in this soil.
  • Cashew Nuts, Tea, Coffee and Rubber are the mains crops of this soil

Red Soil

  • This soil is rich with Iron Oxides so it is red in Colour.
  • This soil is formed by the crystalline rocks.
  • This soil is rich in Iron and Potash.
  • This soil is generally poor growing soil due to low in nutrients and Humus.
  • It is found in Odisha, Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, Telangana, Chattisgarh.
  • The main crops of this soil are wheat and pulses.

Mountain Soil

  • This soil is found in the Himalayan regions and Andaman & Nicobars Regions of India.
  • This soil is formed by the accumulation of organic matter which is derived from the forest grown in these regions.
  • This soil is rich in Humus.
  • Lime, Potash & phosphorus are found in very low quantity.
  • Coffee, Tea and Spices are the main crops of this type of soil

Desert/Arid Soil

  • This soil is generally found in Rajasthan and Some parts of Gujarat & Punjab.
  • This soil is rich in Salt and phosphate.
  • Nitrogen & Humus are found in very low quantity in this soil.
  • Cotton & Maize are the main crops of this soil.

Alkaline/Saline Soil

  • This soil is generally found in Coastal areas.
  • This soil is rich in Sodium, Potassium and Magnesium.
  • Nitrogen & Calcium are found very low quantity.
  • This soil is unfit for agriculture due to the presence of a salt of seawater.

Peat/Marshy soil

  • This soil is formed with large amount of organic matter.
  • A large amount of soluble salt is found in this soil
  • This soil is found in the humid region and coastal areas of Odisha, Tamilnadu, kerela & west Bengal.
  • This soil is heavy and acidic.
  • Paddy is the main crop of this type of soil.

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One liner based on Previous year papers.

  • Earth’s body of soil is known as – Pedosphere
  • Soil science has how many branches for study- 2 (Edaphology & Pedology).
  • Which soil is formed by the chemical decomposition of soil- Laterite soil
  • Which soil is pink or red in colour- Laterite soil.
  • Which soil is formed by the sediments brought down by the rivers-Alluvial soil
  • Which soil is formed from the arid condition with practically negligible rainfall – Desert Soil.
  • Which soil is also called as Regur Soil- Black soil.
  • Which soil is suitable for the growth of cotton- Black soil.
  • Sedimentary deposits settled in lakes are called- Lacustrine.
  • Which soil is usually free of lime and so are very sour- Peat soil
  • The mixing of the soil by the activities of animals is known as- Pedoturbation.
  • Alluvium soil is later divided into- 2 (Khader, Banger)
  • Laterite soil is suitable for the growth of – Tea, Coconut & Rubber.
  • n how many groups Indian soil is divided- Eight
  • Kerela is rich in- Laterite Soil

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