Blood, Blood Theory, blood Groups, Blood Chart, Premiere Function of Blood

Blood Theory, Blood Chart, Blood Groups, Function of Blood

What is Blood?

Blood is a type of connecting tissue which transports oxygen and nutrients to the cell and metabolic waste products away from the cell. It consists of Plasma, RBC, WBC and Blood Platelets. Approx 7-8% of the body weight is consist of Blood. Its pH value is 7.35-7.45.

Blood Chart

What is the Function of Blood?

  • It regulates our body temperature.
  • It transport oxygen and essential nutrients to the cell.
  • It transport waste products from cell to Kidney.
  • It helps to fight infection.

What are the components of Blood?

There are basically four components of Blood they are:-

  • Plasma
  • RBC ( Erythrocytes)
  • WBC (Leukocytes)
  • Platelets.
Plasma
  • A yellowish viscous fluid which carries cells and proteins throughout the body.
  • It contains 55% of the total volume of blood.
  • It is composed of 90% of water, salts, lipd and homones.
  • Prothrombin the clotting factor of blood is present in Plasma.
  • The Plasma without Prothrombin is known as Serum.
RBC (Erythrocytes)
Blood Chart
  • Red Blood Corpuscles is also known as Erythrocytes.
  • RBC is red in colour due to Haemoglobin present in it.
  • Haemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood.
  • RBC is about 40% of the blood in the body.
  • It is formed in the Bone Marrow.
  • The process of production of RBC is called Erythropoiesis.
  • It is Biconcave in shape.
  • The life span of RBC is 120 days.
  • It is destroyed in Spleen.
  • Spleen is called the graveyard of RBC.
  • Lack of RBC in the blood is called Anemia.
  • Increase in the number of RBC in the blood is called Polycythemia.
WBC (Leukocytes)
  • White Blood Corpuscles is also known as Leukocytes.
  • It originates from the bone marrow and circulates throughout the bloodstream.
  • The number of WBC is 6000-8000 per cubic millimetre of blood.
  • It helps to fight infection by Bacteria, Viruses and Germs.
  • It is 0.7% to 1% of the total blood in the body.
  • Its life span is 2-3 days.
  • It is the only particle of blood which has a nucleus inside.
  • Increase in the number of WBC in the blood is called Leukemia or Cancer of blood.
  • The decrease in the number of WBC in the blood is called Leocopenia.
Blood Chart
Parts of WBC
  1. Granulocytes -Which have Neutrophil, Eosinohil, Basophil.
  2. Agranulocytes- which have Lymphocyte & Monocytes
Platelets
  • It is produced in the megakaryocytes cells in the bone marrow.
  • It has no nucleus.
  • Its life span is 8-10 days.
  • It helps in the coagulation or clotting of blood.
  • It helps in the healing of the wound.

Can we exchange Blood to any person in the world?

No, we can not exchange blood to any person in the world. We can exchange blood with the specific person which have the same blood group of me or a specified blood group.

To read about Vitamins for Competitive exams click Here

What is Blood Group?

Blood is classified in the groups based on the Antigens found on the surface of the RBC.

  • In 1901, Karl Landsteiner an American biologist discovered the Blood Group System-ABO.
  • In 1902 Adriano and Alfred Von Decastello discovered AB group. They are working under Karl Landsteiner.
  • Karl Landsteiner awarded Nobel Prize in 1930.
  • Karl Landsteiner discovered Rh factor – a type of protein or antigen on the surface of RBC.

Antigen:- The Plasma membrane that surrounds each of our RBC contains special proteins that are placed there based on our unique genetic makeup.

Antibody:- Protein produced to bind with foreign cells to stimulate immune response of Lymphocytes.

Landsteiner Rule

  • If an antigen is present or absent on the RBC membrane of an individual, the corresponding antibody will be absent or present in the plasma. I.e Antigen absent then corresponding antibody is present or Antigen present the corresponding antibody is absent. For Example, If A antigen is present A antibody is absent or vice versa.

Blood Group chart to understand the rule clearly

Group-AGroup-BGroup-ABGroup-O
RBC TypeABABO
Antibodies in plasmaBANoneBoth A & B
Antigen in RBCABABNone

Universal Donor:– The person who can donate his blood to any person of the world.

Universal Recipient:– The person who can receive his blood to any person of the world.

Find out who can receive and donate to whom through the Blood chart given below:-

Blood TypeAntigensAntibodiesDonate Receive
ABBoth A&BNoneABAB,A,B,O
AABA & ABA & O
BBAB & ABB & O
ONoneBoth A &BAB,A,B,OO

Rh Factor of Blood:- It is a type of antigen present on the surface of the RBC of Humans. It is similar to the Rhesus Monkey so its name is given to Rh. Those in which this is present are called Rh (+) and absent are called Rh(-).

As per Rh factor now the blood is divided in 8 Groups they are

AB+AB-A+A-B+B-O+O-

Blood Chart of Donor and Recipient as per Rh factor is given below:-

Recipient

 

Donor

O-

O+

A-

A+

B-

B+

AB-

AB+

AB+

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

AB-

Yes

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

B+

Yes

Yes

NO

NO

Yes

Yes

NO

NO

B-

yes

NO

NO

NO

Yes

NO

NO

NO

A+

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

NO

NO

NO

NO

A-

Yes

Yes

Yes

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

O+

Yes

Yes

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

O-

Yes

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

In spite of the above blood group, there is also a  blood group known as Bombay blood group as it was first discovered by Dr Y.M. Bhende in 1952 in Bombay city of Maharashtra know known as Mumbai.

one Liner Facts related to Competetive Exams

  • Lymphocytes are formed in the Bone marrow.
  • Blood is connective tissue.
  • Spleen is called the Graveyard of RBC.
  • The nucleus is found only in WBC.
  • The Shape of RBC is Biconcave.
  • Life Span of RBC is 120 Days
  • The life span of WBC is 2-3 days
  • Lack of RBC is called Anemia
  • The increase in WBC is known as Cancer of Blood/Leukemia.
  • O(-ve) is known as Universal Donor.
  • The volume of blood in the normal human is 5-6 litres.
  • The Percentage of water in Plasma is 90%.
  • The viscous nature of blood is due to proteins in the Plasma.
  • Thrombin is known as the blood clotting factor.
  • Lymphocytes are found in the Spleen of the body.

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