Astonishing River System of India
On the basis of Source of Rivers, River System of India is divided into two parts:- Himalayan River System & Peninsular River System.
Himalayan River system of India is further divided into three parts on the three major Rivers of India. These Rivers are also called Antecedent Rivers, they are- Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra.
Indus River System
Important Facts related to the competitive Exams
- The origin of Indus River is in Tibet near Mansarovar Lake in China.
- From Origin to Destination Indus river crosses three Countries.
- The length of the Indus river is 3180 km.
- It is the longest river in Pakistan.
- It is the National river of Pakistan.
- The total Drainage area of Indus river is- 1165000 km2.
- The annual flow of water in this river is 243 km3.
- The major Tributaries of Indus Rivers are- Satluj, Beas, Chenab, Ravi and Jhelum.
- The combined form of all these five tributaries is known as Panjnad.
- The meeting point of the Panjnad and Indus river is Mithankot in Pakistan.
- Chenab is the largest tributary of the Indus River.
- Chenab River originates from Baralacha La pass in Himachal Pradesh.
- Satluj River originates from Rakas lake in Mansarovar Tibet.
- Jhelum River originates from Verinag in Kashmir.
- Bhakra Nangal Dam is located on Jhelum river in India.
- Beas & Ravi Rivers originate from Rohtang Pass in Himachal Pradesh.
- Indus Water treaty was signed between India and Pakistan on 19 Sep 1960, according to this treaty, 80% of the water of Indus and its tributaries are used by Pakistan and rest 20% by India.
The Ganges River System
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- The Origin of The Ganges is Gangotari Glacier in Uttarakhand.
- The Name of Ganga at the origin place is Bhagirathi.
- Bhagirathi is called Ganga from Devprayag where Alaknanda river merge with Bhagirathi in Uttarakhand.
- The origin of Alaknanda is Satoanth Glacier in Badrinath.
- From origin to destination Ganga river crosses five states of India they are:- Uttarakhand, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal.
- Ganga is the national river of India.
- The length of Ganga from origin to destination in India is 2525 km.
- Gangetic Dolphin is the national aquatic animal of India.
- Ganga river enters into Plain area at Haridwar.
- Ganga divided into two parts at Farakka in West Bengal.
- First part flows in Bangladesh with name Padma.
- Second part flows from West Bengal with name Hooghly.
- Farakka Barrage is the easternmost point of India and border of India and Bangladesh where the name of Ganga changes to the Padma.
- Jamuna is the largest distributary of the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh.
- Padma river in Bangladesh made estuary in the Bay of Bengal.
- Hoogly river enters into the Bay of Bengal at Sagar Island.
- Hooghly river made the largest river Delta of the world known as Sundarban.
- Sundarban is the home of Royal Bengal Tiger.
- Sundarban is named by the Sundari tree found in this area.
- The major left side tributaries of Ganga are- Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghra, Gandak, Koshi & Mahananda
- The Yamuna, Tamas, Punpun and Son are the four major right-side tributaries of Ganga.
Left Side Tributaries of Ganga
- It originates from Dudhatoli range in Uttarakhand.
- Ancient Name of Ramganga is Rathvahini.
- It flows through Jim Corbet National Park.
- It merge with Ganga at Fatehgarh district in Uttar Pradesh.
- Gomti River originates from Gomat Taal in Pilphit district in Uttar Pradesh.
- It merges with Ganga in Varanasi Uttar Pradesh.
- It Originates from Mansarovar Lake in Tibet.
- It merges with Ganga in Ravelgunj in Bihar.
- It is the longest river of Nepal with length 507 km.
- It is the largest tributary of Ganga.
- It originates from Nhubine Himal Glacier in Nepal.
- It merges with Ganga in Sonpur Bihar.
- it originates from the border of Nepal and Tibet.
- It merges with Ganga near Kursela in Katihar District.
- This river is known as Sorrow of Bihar.
- Mahananda River originates from Darjeeling Hills.
- It merges with the Padma at Godagiri, Nawabganj district in Bangladesh.
- The length of this river is 360 km.
Right Side Tributaries of Ganga
- The Yamuna originates from Yamunotri Glacier in Uttarakhand.
- Yamuna meets Ganga at Allahabad/Prayagraj.
- Tributaries of Yamuna river are Chambal, Sindh, Betwa, Ken, Tons.
- Chambal river originates from Singar chouri peak in Indore.
- Chambal Valley project inaugurated in 1954 by the joint venture of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh Govt.
- There are three Dams in the Chambal Valley project they are:- Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Jawahar sagar Dam.
- Gandhi Sagar Dam was made in 1960 and located in Mandsaur at the border of Rajasthan and MP.
- Rana Pratap sagar Dam was made in 1970 and located at Rawatbhata Chittorgarh Rajasthan.
- Jawahar Sagar Dam was made in 1972 and located at Kota in Rajasthan.
- Sindh river originates from Malwa Plateau in Madhya Pradesh.
- Tons river is the largest tributary of Yamuna originates from Bandarpoonch mountain in Uttarakhand.
- Betwa river originates from Vindhya range in Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh.
- Ken River originates from Vindhya range in Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh.
- Ken-Betwa river project is India’s first interstate river interlinking project
- The origin of Tamas river is Kaimur range in Madhya Pradesh.
- It merge in Ganga river at Sirsa in Uttar Pradesh.
- The total length of Tamas river is 264 km.
- The source of Sone river is Amarkantak plateau in Madhya Pradesh.
- It merges with Ganga in Patna Bihar.
- This river originates from Plamu district in Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand.
- It merge with Ganga at Fatuha near Patna in Bihar.
Brahmaputra River System
- The origin of Brahmaputra river is Angsi Glacier in Mansarovar lake in Tibet.
- The name of this river is Yarlung Tsangpo.
- The length of this river is 3969 km. (In NCERT-2880 km).
- From Namcha Barwa Canyon it enters into Arunachal Pradesh in India.
- In Arunachal Pradesh its name is Siang river.
- In Assam its name is Luit.
- Brahmaputra river makes the largest river island in the world name as Majuli Island.
- From Garo Hills in Assam it enters into Bangladesh.
- The two distributeries of Brahmaputra river are Jamuna and Old Brahmaputra in Bangladesh.
- The major left side tributaries of this river are Dibang, Lohit, Dihing, Kopili.
- The major Right side tribueries of this river are Subansiri, Kameng, Manas, Teesta.
- Subansiri river is known as Gold river due to gold dust found in it.
- Kaziranga national park is located near Kameng river in Assam.
- Teesta river is known as the Lifeline of Sikkim.
peninsular River System of India
- Peninsular rivers are generally seasonal rivers.
- Peninsular Rivers are divided into two parts:- Towards the Arabian Sea & Towards Bay of Bengal.
- Major west-flowing rivers of this system are:- Narmada, Tapi, Mahi & Sabarmati and enter into the sea through the Gulf of Khambhat.
- The origin of Sabarmati river is in Aravali range in Rajasthan.
- Narmada river originates from Amarkantak Peak of Madhya Pradesh.
- Narmada is the largest West flowing river of Peninsular.
- The length of this river is 1310 KM.
- Narmada river forms Dhuandhar falls in Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh.
- Sardar Sarovar and Indira sagar Dam are located on Narmada river.
- The origin of Tapi river is Satpura range in Madhya Pradesh.
- The dams located on Tapi rivers are Ukai dam in Gujrat, Hathnur & Girna Dam in Maharashtra.
- Tapi river is also known as “Twin of Narmada”.
- The origin of Mahi river is Vindhya range in Madhya Pradesh.
- Important Dams on Mahi river are Bajaj Sagar dam & Kadana Dam in Rajasthan.
- Luni is the largest river of Indian desert i.e Thar desert.
- The origin of Luni river is Pushker Valley in Ajmer.
- Luni is the only river in India which has salty water.
- Luni is the only river which never enters into the sea it vanishes in the Rann of Kutch.
- Major East flowing rivers of Peninsular river system are:- Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna & Kaveri
- The origin of Mahanadi is Sihawa mountain in Chattisgarh.
- It flows through Chattisgarh and Odhisa with 851 km length.
- The longest earthern dam of the world Hirakud Dam is located on Mahanadi river in Odhisha.
- Mahanadi was called the sorrow of Odhisa.
- Godavari is known as Dakshin Ganga.
- The origin of this river is Nashik in Maharashtra.
- The length of this river is 1465 km.
- The origin of Krishna river in Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra.
- The length of this river is 1401 km.
- Vijayawada is the largest city located on this river in Andhra Pradesh.
- The origin of Kaveri river is Brahmagiri range in Karnataka.
- Shivsamudram Falls located on Kaveri river.