Ancient Age/Stone Age
The history of the ancient age or stone age is written on the basis of tools and weapons used by men at that time. According to the size and nature of the weapons, this age is divided into three ages
- Prehistoric age/ Paleolithic age.
- Middle stone age/ Mesolithic age.
- New stone age / Neolithic age.
- Paleolithic age:- Men used rough and rude weapons made of quartzite type of chipped rocks. These were called Hand Axes. Men were nomadic in nature they did not know how to make fire or grow food. This age ended in India at approximately 8000 B.C. It is divided into three phases i) Early or lower paleolithic age, ii) Middle paleolithic age, iii) Upper paleolithic age.
- Mesolithic age:– This age lasted from 8000 B.C to 4000 B.C in India. Towards the end of this age, agriculture started and people learned to domesticate animals. People made pottery by hand.
- New stone age:– The weapons of this age were more polished, sharp, and serviceable. The people of this age cultivated land kept domestic animals and used pottery. Potter’s wheel was discovered at this time The Neolithic men lived permanently in a place. They used to bury their dead. Mehrangarh in Pakistan now is the oldest Neolithic site in the Indian subcontinent.
The Age of Metals:– The new stone age followed by the age of metals. For a long time utensils of stone were in use side by side with those of copper and bronze. This is the reason why this age is called Chalcolithic Age. In India, Indus valley Civilisation belongs to this age.
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Features of Chalcolithic age:-
- Use of distinctly painted pottery, which was mostly black and red ware.
- A highly specialized stone blade industry of siliceous stone.
- Occasional and limited use of copper.
- Cultivation of both Ravi and Kharif crops.
- Barley was the chief crop.
- Evidence of rice was found from Inamgaon.
- They were the first to produce cotton.
- The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1412 AD)
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